|10|| ||The protocol stack currently being implemented hence consists of the following protocols:
| ||5||== Motivation ==
| ||7||The Internet of Things revolution is quietly coming, and with it an epochal turnpoint in wireless network design. A large amount of highly resource constrained, highly heterogeneous nodes will be ubiquitously communicating in a wireless fashion. Because of their unprecedented capabilities, these networks have received significant attention from the academic community in the last decade.
| ||9||With these networks gaining maturity, standardization bodies have started to work on standardizing how networks communicate.Standardization is a key step towards ubiquitous adoption of those networks.
| ||11||== Protocol Stack ==
| ||13||Different work groups from different standardization bodies have studied different parts of the protocol stack for the Internet of Things:
| ||15|| * The [http://ieee802.org/15/pub/TG4e.html IEEE802.15.4e] working group is defining MAC amendment to the existing [http://standards.ieee.org/getieee802/download/802.15.4-2006.pdf IEEE802.15.4-2006] standard. The proposal being standardized, called Time Synchronized Channel Hopping, significantly increases robustness against external interference and persistent multi-path fading through channel hopping, a technique whereby all frequency channels are used. Note that the IEEE802.15.4e draft standard functions on IEEE802.15.4-2006 hardware.
| ||16|| * The [http://tools.ietf.org/wg/6lowpan/ IETF 6LoWPAN] working group standardizes the mechanisms for an IPv6 packet to travel over networks of devices communicating using IEEE802.15.4 radios. One of the key aspect is the IETF 6LoWPAN compresses the 40B header down to 2B. This step is necessary to leave space of the data in the IEEE802.15.4 packets which are at most 128 bytes long.
| ||17|| * The [http://tools.ietf.org/wg/6lowpan/ IETF ROLL] working group standardizes the routing protocol, i.e. the distributed algorithm which finds the multi-hop path connecting the nodes in the network with a small number of destination nodes. The key idea is that nodes acquire a ''rank'' which increases with distance to the destination, hence forming a gradient towards that destination.
| ||18|| * [http://www.openadr.org/ OpenADR] describes an open standards‐based communications data model designed to promote common information exchange between the utility and electric customers using demand response price and reliability signals. OpenADR is one element of the Smart Grid information and communications technologies that are being developed to improve optimization between electric supply and demand.
| ||20||These standards can be layered on top of other, forming the following protocol stack:
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